Last year, the CDA had by far the most integrity problems counting ten affairs. The VVD only had three. Remarkably little, because the party has topped the Political Integrity Index every year until now. Proposing the corona rules and a new code of conduct caused many problems. And all too often it turned out that politicians have a double standard.

The Political Integrity Index (PII) is a project by Leo Huberts (emeritus professor of public administration at VU University Amsterdam), Muel Kaptein (professor of business ethics at RSM Erasmus University) and investigative journalist Bart de Koning. The PII has been mapping integrity violations by Dutch politicians since 1980.


  • Muel Kaptein
    Role: Faculty
    Reference type: Co-written by

Media Outlets

  • De Volkskrant (Online)